Monday, January 20, 2020
When you mention Alaska and the Arctic Circle, one envisions igloos, dog sleds, and invariably, Eskimos. However, little do most know, that what most refer to as Eskimos is actually a generalization representing three distinct groups. In order to understand the societies that live in this region and acknowledge their cultural differences we must explore the different groups that inhabit this region of which there are two: the Inuit, and the Yupik. For the purposes of this discussion we will focus on the lives of the Inuit. The Inuit are a group of people often mischaracterized as Eskimos. They lived in the area of central and northeastern Canada and Greenland. There has been much discussion of the orignination of this group of people but the most recognized theory is that they crossed from northern Asia across thin bridge of land over the Bering Strait sometime around 6000-2000 BC. Many people mistakenly think that the Inuit and Native Americans are one in the same. It seems that the Inuit most likely came from Asia more likely than the Native Americans. Although both probably came to the Americas through the Bering Strait. Biological, cultural and dialect differences show the different origin. Much of this theory is supported due to the close resemblance of the Inuit to the Mongoloid races of Eastern Asia. Because of the harsh land and climate of the Arctic, this area was probably one of the last regions to be inhabite d making the Inuit on of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s younger cultures. A large portion of the Inuit culture was developed based upon the need to survive. Migratory societies such as the Inuit were driven by the need for food to feed its members, by the availability of trade to secure resources not normally available ... ...ith many fluctuations in prices due to fashion trends, especially in Europe. With the growth of the animal rights movement in the 1960s, fur prices decreased to the point that the industry was only barely sustainable. At the same time, the HBC trading posts had morphed into retail stores, and were doing a different kind of business across the North. They exist today as the Northern Store in the communities, a sort of grocery plus department store. Works Cited Jones, J. Sidney. (2012). Inuit, . Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.everyculture.com The Inuit Culture. (2009). Retrieved March 10, 2012, from http://www.mythicjourneys.org Frederic V. Grunfeld (Ed.), Oker: Spiele der Welt II. (in German) Fischer, Frankfurt/M 1984. ISBN 3-596-23075-6 Pulaarvik Friendship Kablu Centre (2007). Retrieved March 7,2012, from http://www.pulaarvik.ca
Sunday, January 12, 2020
On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong, leader of the Chinese Communist Party declared victory over the Nationalist Party (Guomindang) and brought an end to four brutally long years of Civil War. The Communist victory in the Civil War has however, created significant debate among historians, namely: was a Communist victory inevitable and if so is it more sensible to see the Chinese Civil War as a Communist victory or as a Nationalist defeat?When researching these questions it becomes blatantly obvious that the Guomindang government led by Chiang Kai-Shek was riddled with problems and they are very much the cause of their own downfall. Widespread government corruption, spiraling inflation, loss of public confidence and intractable poverty are just a few of the failings the Guomindang afflicted upon the Chinese people. These monumental failings make a Communist victory seem almost inevitable, in that they just happened to be there to assume power as the Nationalists lost support and drowned in their own mistakes. In this sense it is more sensible to view the Civil War as a Nationalist defeat, rather than a Communist victory. On the other hand, the Communists were able to turn dismal rural poverty and the Japanese invasion into assets, using them to convince villagers that radical change was imperative and that the Communist Party was best qualified to bring about this change. Seen in this light, superior strategy and organisational methods allowed the Communists to achieve victory and not just Ã¢â¬Å"move into a vacuumÃ¢â¬ as suggested by Barnett (Barnett, 1965: 1). There is certainly an element of inevitability with regard to the Communist victory, however, in this essay I will argue that not only was the outcome of the Chinese Civil War not preordained, but I will also critically evaluate the reasons the Guomindang lost the Civil War and explain that given their policy mistakes, the Civil War should be seen as a Nationalist defeat rather than a Communist victory. If the Nationalists had been willing to adapt and had they initiated some changes in their strategies, the Communist Party, no matter what its internal organisation or external strategies, would not have been able to bring revolution to China. This theory is not supported by Kubek, who argues that the cause of theÃ Nationalist defeat was due to a lack of aid from the United States, declaring Ã¢â¬Å"sovietisation of China and Manchuria could be the only logical outcome of post-war United States policy in ChinaÃ¢â¬ (Kubek, 1965: 62). This view point is unduly simplistic and overvalues AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in China, an opinion supported by Chang, who believes the Guomindang governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"failure was due not so much to lack of American support, but to its inherent defectsÃ¢â¬ (Chang, 1965: 40). Before analysing these inherent defects and the reasons that the Nationalist Party lost the Civil War, it is important to understand the fundamentals of the situation in China at the end of World War Two; specifically the consequences of the eight year war with Japan that totally exhausted the Guomindang militarily, economically and spiritually. Hsu argues that the war with Japan is the Ã¢â¬Å"single most important cause for the downfall of the NationalistsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"had there been no Japanese war, the situation in China would have been very differentÃ¢â¬ (Hsu, 1990: 734). Many of the GuomindangÃ¢â¬â¢s problems such as factionalism, corruption and leadership were prevalent prior to the Sino-Japanese War; however it was during the last phases of the Sino-Japanese War that these problems reached crisis proportions and in hindsight it seems impossible that the Guomindang could have overcome these problems to defeat the Communists (Service, 1965: 29). Chang also believes that the Guomindang faced insurmountable problems prior to the Civil War, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"the government of Chiang Kai-Shek was built on quicksand and clay. How can it stand? Is it any wonder that it fell like a house of cards when it had to face the Communist crisis?Ã¢â¬ (Chang, C. 1965: 41). Westad, (2003: 7) however argues that Ã¢â¬Å"in spite of the GuomindangÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses, the outcome of the post-war conflict with the Communists was no way predetermined in 1945Ã¢â¬ . At the end of the Sino-Japanese War the Guomindang held significant advantages over the Communists, with its widely recognised legitimate government controlling China, giving it the power to tax and conscript. On the other hand, the Communists could not match the GuomindangÃ¢â¬â¢s troops in terms of training and equipment and could beÃ Ã¢â¬Å"outgunned and outmanoeuvred in all major regions of the countryÃ¢â¬ (Westad, 2003: 8). Furthermore, the Communist party was hardly represented in the cities at all, which of course was the power base of the Guomindang. However, the Communists also had successes resulting from the war with Japan including increasing their area of control and practiced evolving their strategies of protracted guerrilla warfare against the Japanese which in turn generated public support. Despite this the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s main forces were still located in North-west China and they were not in such a powerful position that a civil war with the Guomindang would be a mere formality in securing control of the country. The Civil War is therefore simply not a case of the imminent decline of the Guomindang and the CommunistsÃ¢â¬â¢ irresistible rise. Rather the Sino-Japanese War provided the framework for the decisions and strategies that would ultimately lead to Nationalist defeat. The war with Japan left the Guomindang decimated and they did need to undergo reform in order to survive; however the factionalism and corruption within the Guomindang resulted in increasingly repressive controls being implemented upon the war weary Chinese people. At a time when new strategies were needed, the government instead continued its repressive controls and when war again broke out, the government lost even more support and collapsed with cataclysmic speed. This was due in no small part to the leadership of the Guomindang, whose perpetuation of their own power dominated over all other considerations (Service, 1965: 28). The arrogance and mismanagement of the Guomindang alienated the Chinese people and caused a loss of public confidence and respect. This loss of respect not only resulted in the Nationalists losing influence in their own power bases, but made it easier for the Communists to exploit this public disharmony and encourage the Chinese people to think that a change in administration would bring about a change in their fortunes. An example of the GuomindangÃ¢â¬â¢s poor leadership strategies can be seen in their occupation of former Japanese colonies (Service, 1965: 29). The Chinese citizens within these Japanese occupied territories had waited eightÃ years for the return of Nationalist rule, but instead of being treated as victims of war, they were exploited. The Guomindang leaders did not return their land but acquired it as their own property; moreover, they virtually eliminated the monetary assets of these people. This was caused by the currency in the occupied territories going through extreme inflation as the government only offered the exorbitant exchange rate of two hundred to one; when a more reasonable rate would have been half that much (Phillips, 1996: 158). Furthermore, the puppet leaders that had been installed by the Japanese often kept their positions or became members of the Guomindang. Poor policy decisions such as this would lead to the downfall of the Guomindang, as it is impossible to fight an effective war without the support of the people and the economic policies of the government alienated millions of suffering people. The GuomindangÃ¢â¬â¢s economic problems were not limited to the territories formerly occupied by the Japanese. All over China inflation was an exceptionally large problem, for as the increases seen during the Japanese War were allowed to spiral out of control during the Civil War. Service, (1965: 29) argues that this is a direct result of corruption within the Guomindang, and that they refused to take any effective steps to check inflation or implement agricultural reforms for fear of losing the support of the landlord class in China. In view of this, the Guomindang developed urban industry at the expense of agricultural and financed this by simply printing more bank notes. Their economic mismanagement was disastrous for the majority of the Chinese people and meant that by 1948 government expenditure had become thirty times larger when compared to its pre-war level; the budget deficit had also blown out to thirty times it pre-war level and inflation was increasing at the rate of thirty per cent a month (Chang, K. 1965: 23). The Nationalist government faced imminent financial doom and the Chinese people were becoming aware of the selfish nature of their government whose economic policies and financial mismanagement destroyed the livelihood of hundreds of millions of Chinese. The failings of the Guomindang would provide the Communist party with ample opportunities to exploit the discontent of the Chinese people. This was one of the reasons for the Communist victory in that they were able to gain the support of people from the rural areas who the Guomindang had alienated. An example of this can be seen in the rural land reforms implemented in newly gained territories. In these areas the Communists promoted production and ensured supplies by creating a self-sufficient economy. To rouse the productive enthusiasm of the peasants, they launched a campaign to reduce rent and interest. Peasant associations and other organisations were urged to demand and enforce a 25 percent rent reduction, with a rent ceiling set at 37.5 percent of the crops. The interest rate on loans was limited to 1.5 percent a month, or 18 percent a year, much lower that the excessive rate formerly charged by the landlords (Westad, 2003: 11 and Fielding, 1999: 134). They were able to achieve these reforms without confiscating large amounts of land, as considerable redistribution of land to the peasants was accomplished by impo sing graduated taxes in such a way that larger landholders voluntarily sold land because it was no longer profitable. It is arguable that the Communists had no intention of eliminating the economic power of the landlords, but instead they showed the peasants that they could exercise their power locally and play an active role in the war against a government that some had come to despise. The Communists gave the peasants what they wanted: an army of friendly troops who not only did not steal their crops but helped them bring in the harvest and who implemented popular but gradual economic reforms (Ebrey, 1996: 289). This is in stark contrast to the Guomindang who did not understand the peasants and showed no interest in aiding them. They failed to see the revolutionary potential of the peasant masses and unlike the Communist Party never attempted to organise them. This situation was best summarised by Hsu: Ã¢â¬Å"the stone that one builder had rejected became the cornerstone of the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s houseÃ¢â¬ (Hsu, 1990: 738). However, many of the most important cause of the Nationalist defeat during the Civil War were military ones. Despite emerging from the Japanese War better equipped and trained, the Nationalist Army was a tired force (Hsu, 1990: 734). This war-weariness was felt throughout China and there wasÃ widespread recognition that full scale civil war would be a tragedy for the country. It is therefore, not surprising that the GuomindangÃ¢â¬â¢s persistence in military aggression towards the Communists, who were Chinese after all, failed to arouse the same patriotic loyalty as when the enemies were Japanese (Stuart, 1965: 19). Given this situation the Nationalist Army needed good leadership and to gain the support of the people; they were unsuccessful on both counts. This was largely due to the leadership system created by Chiang Kai-Shek that was Ã¢â¬Å"a congerie of conservative political cliquesÃ¢â¬ concerned primarily with maintaining their own power (Service, 1965: 30). Furthermore, the highest military posts were reserved for those who like Chiang Kai-Shek had graduated from the Whampoa military academy and this often meant that more talented officers were turned away. General Barr of the United States said of the Guomindang leadership in 1949 that, Ã¢â¬Å"their military debacles in my opinion can all be attributed to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s worst leadership and many other morale destroying factors that lead to a complete loss of will to fightÃ¢â¬ (Barr, 1949: x quoted in Bianco, 1971: 180). In fact, many battles were lost by the Nationalists without a fight, as hundreds of thousands of troops simply defected or surrendered to the Communists (Barnett, 1965: 5). An example of this may be seen during the Huai-Huai Campaign, where poor military leadership caused the Nationalist troops to become surrounded and resulted in an irreparable loss of manpower without a fight (Phillips, 1996: 158). Rather than undertaking offensives to seek out and destroy the main mobile guerrilla units of the Communists, they holed up for the most part in isolated, vulnerable, defensive positions allowing the Communists to concentrate their forces and attack and overwhelm NationalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ positions one by one (Barnett, 1965: 5). This strategy played into the hands of the Communists whose primary goal was to reduce the numbers of the Nationalist army. They were not concerned with holding specific geographic areas and this allowed them to be a lot more flexible in their attacks. Moreover, the Communist troops were ordered to avoid large battles and to engage the enemy only when there was a high probability of victory. Mao Zedong argued that the only way guerrilla warfare could succeedÃ is if the army had the support of the people, and the Communists certainly had this (Mao Zedong, 1940: x cited in Bianco, 1971: 184). The Communists successfully achieved this through the use of propaganda. They portrayed themselves as defenders of the nation and the Guomindang as enemies of all levels of society, from peasant to scholar (Chang, C. 1965: 40). Chiang Kai-shek himself admitted that the Nationalists failure in propaganda Ã¢â¬Å"was a major defect in our struggle against CommunismÃ¢â¬ (Kai-shek, 1965: 77). Despite this, the Nationalist army had many opportunities to seriously weaken the Communists. However, their leadership too often committed crucial tactical mistakes, which were the result of lack of communication and disputes within the party caused by the factionalism that riddled the Guomindang leadership (Westad, 2003: 11). Clique politics and factionalism would eventually lead to the situation where unified action to either solve the problems in Nationalist held territory or to fight against the Communists became virtually impossible (Barnett, 1965: 6). This is in stark contrast to the leadership of the Communist armies, whose generals were not concerned with personal gain, but instead co-operated with each other and gained the support of the Chinese people and worked towards a united goal (Westad, 2003: 9). These superior military tactics and aforementioned economic reforms brought the Communists wide spread support and ultimately victory. However, this victory would never have been achievable were it not for the military, economic and social failings of the Guomindang. Chiang Kai-Shek himself admitted major defects in organisation and technique in the NationalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ war against Communism, however he argued that these defects were remediable, Ã¢â¬Å"so long as our strategy and policy were correct, I believe we still could have wonÃ¢â¬ (Kai-Shek, 1965: 82). It is in this light that the Chinese Civil War should be viewed not as a Communist victory, but as a Nationalist defeat. There is no doubt that the war against Japan was a crushing blow to the Nationalists economic and military power, however it was not fatal. TheÃ Nationalist government could have continued to consolidate its power and authority by the sheer weight of its military strength and financial resources (Tsou, 1965: 28). Even though the Nationalist government was far from popular, it was the most powerful military and economic force in China and could have survived if it had been willing to regain the support of the people. Defeat to the Communists was therefore, far from inevitable, and the Nationalists were very much the engineers of their own demise. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barnett, A. (1965), Ã¢â¬ËMultiple factorsÃ¢â¬â¢, in Pichon Loh (ed.) Ã¢â¬ËThe Kuomintang Debacle of 1949: Conquest or Collapse?Ã¢â¬â¢ D.C. Heath & Company, BostonBianco, Lucien. (1971), Ã¢â¬ËOrigins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-1949Ã¢â¬â¢ Stanford University Press, StanfordChang, Carsun. (1965), Ã¢â¬ËChiang Kai-shek and Kuomintang dictatorshipÃ¢â¬â¢, in PichonLoh (ed.) Ã¢â¬ËThe Kuomintang Debacle of 1949: Conquest or Collapse?Ã¢â¬â¢ D.C. Heath& Company, BostonChang, Kia-Ngua. (1965) Ã¢â¬ËWar and InflationÃ¢â¬â¢ in Pichon Loh (ed.) Ã¢â¬ËThe Kuomintang Debacle of 1949: Conquest or Collapse?Ã¢â¬â¢ D.C. Heath & Company, BostonEbrey, Patricia. (1996), Cambridge Illustrated History: China, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, EnglandFielding, Mark & Morcombe, Margot. (1999), Ã¢â¬ËThe Spirit of Change Ã¢â¬â China in RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ McGraw Hill Book Company, Roseville, NSWHsu, Immanuel C.Y. (1990), Ã¢â¬ËThe Rise of Modern ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢ Oxford Univer sity Press, New YorkKai-shek, Chiang 1965, Ã¢â¬ËCommunist designs and Kuomintang blundersÃ¢â¬â¢, inPichon Loh (ed.) The Kuomintang Debacle of 1949: Conquest or Collapse?, D.C. Heath & Company, BostonKubek, Anthony 1965, Ã¢â¬ËCommunist subversion and American appeasementÃ¢â¬â¢, inPichon Loh (ed.) The Kuomintang Debacle of 1949: Conquest or Collapse?, D.C. Heath & Company, BostonPhillips, Richard. (1996) Ã¢â¬ËChina since 1911Ã¢â¬â¢ St MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s Press, New York. Service, John S. 1965, Ã¢â¬ËThe enthronement of reactionÃ¢â¬â¢, in Pichon Loh (ed.)The Kuomintang Debacle of 1949: Conquest or Collapse?, D.C. Heath & Company,BostonStuart, John L. (1965), Ã¢â¬ËPopular Discontent and Creeping ParalysisÃ¢â¬â¢, in Pichon Loh (ed.)The Kuomintang Debacle of 1949: Conquest or Collapse?, D.C. Heath & Company,BostonTsou, Tang 1965, Ã¢â¬ËContradictions between program and practiseÃ¢â¬â¢, in PichonLoh (ed.) The Kuomintang Debacle of 1949: Conquest or Collapse?, D.C. Heath& Company, BostonWestad, Odd Arne 2003, Decisive Encounters: the Chinese Civil War 1946 -1950, Stanford University Press, California
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Name of Paper Presenter : Mrs. Sandhya Milind Khedekar Designation : Name of the College : Lecturer Thakur Shyamnarayan College of Education Research, Kandivali (East), Mumbai. Title of the Paper : Impact of driving forces of Globalization Ã¢â¬â Role of Education Globalization has come to be a principal characteristic feature of the new millennium and it has become an inescapable reality in todays society. No community and society can remain isolated from the forces of globalization. The cyber society has come with a bang. The computer culture is spreading rapidly. Even in a poor country, coca-cola, cars, cosmetics and clothes seen in the cities and towns hide the reality of poverty and suffering of the people. We have almost reached aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦While some nations have tremendous economic advantages, others have become more and more dependent. The main players in the present process of globalization are the governments of powerful nations, transnational cooperation, the World Bank and the WTO. The development of all third world countries has to be related to the world market. They control the monetary system and international trade. The multinationals and other institutions with the help of the state control all developmen t processes. The role of developing countries is simply to provide cheap labour to attract investors and to provide raw materials, which are at the mercy of fluctuating prices. They are to meet the needs of others as cheaply as possible. This unfettered growth of the multinationals and the emphasis on foreign trade are not conducive to a development pattern that is oriented to the basic needs of the people. The production needs and patterns are often determined by the market forces. It is unfortunate that they seldom take into consideration the basic needs of the people. Only the stronger and successful competitors survive and thereby widening the gap between the rich and poor, both between countries and within country. One cannot deny that there has been a worldwide growth in poverty, inequality and the human misery. Social injustice is becoming an accepted reality. Indeed, it has created a situation of marginalization, exclusion and socialShow MoreRelatedCulture Drives Globalizati on Essay1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe term Ã¢â¬ËglobalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ did not come about till the twentieth century however the processes of globalization had been around since the era of imperial domination. Ã¢â¬Å"The controversy surrounding the on-going debates about globalization is whether unfettered market forces will further diverge or converge income the world over. 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Terrorist groups were able to utilize the same communicationRead MoreGlobalization Has A Long History1578 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Globalization has a long history. According to National Geographic Society (2015), globalization grew when the Europeans began establishing colonies overseas. Many of the early European explorers were eager to spread the Christian religion to the regions they visited. Ã¢â¬Å"The globalization of Christianity spread from Europe to Latin America through Christian missionaries working with the local populationsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization,Ã¢â¬ 2015). Globalization was accelerated in the 19th century with theRead MoreThe First Glimpse Of Globalization1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGlobalization is the process in which a world-wide circulation of goods, ideas, and people takes place. Historically, there were two periods of profound expansion, the 15th and 16th century and 20th and 21st century. In both cases, these eras of globalization were preceded by periods of enriched thinking, sharing, and scientific revolutions. The renaissance is a prime example of an era when ideas and knowledge flourished and spread throughout Europe. This newfound age of discovery resulted in globalRead MoreStarbucks : What Key Driving Forces Coffee Shop Retailers?1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesanalyzing Starbucks past, present and future, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to look at the external situation that surrounds them. By performing a five forces analysis it can be decided if the industry is strong enough for outsiders to enter and prevail. The next consideration is what key driving forces coffee shop retailers should concentrate. Those forces are: increasing globalization, marketing innovation, changes in cost and efficiency and changing societal concerns, attitude and lifestyles. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also important toRead MorePositive Effects Of Globalization1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Economic globalization refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"increasing interdependence of world economiesÃ¢â¬ (Shangquan, 2000), as a result of free movement of goods, services, technology, capital, and information between countries and across borders. It is one of the three main areas of globalization; economic globalization moves at an increasingly fast pace as movement across borders progresses. While economic globalization has had many benefits and positive effects on both developed and under developed countries, itRead MoreGlobalization and Its Impact on International Business Essay1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages............3 What is Globalization....................................................4 The engines for GlobalizationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦5 GlobalizationÃ¢â¬â¢s impacts on international businessÃ¢â¬ ¦..7 The road ahead for international businessÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦9 SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..11 ReferenceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦12 Introduction Every day we hear it on the news, read it in the papers, overhear people talking about itÃ¢â¬ ¦ and in every single instance the word globalization seems to have a differentRead MoreTeaching And Learning Of The 21st Century1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgreater change in education. Our students are facing many difficulties like increased population, climate change, health deficiency, primary poverty and other environmental changes. Therefore, this technological revolution, social, economic and globalization changes have intended for new changes and developments in 21st century teaching and learning. Knowledge and understanding: 21st century teaching and learning: 21st century learning means that students are connected to other learners and resources
Thursday, December 26, 2019
The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage. Yet, same-sex marriage continues to be a highly debated issue that leaves our society searching for answers. This has been very apparent during elections when politicians, in order to distract or sway conservative voters, all took a side and had an opinion on the issue of same-sex marriage. The debate has been presented on the left as a civil rights debate, equal rights. And on the right, as a morals debate, a referendum on homosexuality (Rauch, J. 2004). Everyone has an opinion on whether two men or two women should be allowed to get married, and in doing so, have all the same rights granted by the federal government to them asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Nowadays, marriage is completely elective. Now we have contraception. Today, marriage is a lifestyle choice (Rauch, J. 2004). The nuclear family is no longer the Ã¢â¬Å"normÃ¢â¬ . ItÃ¢â¬â¢s now a reality that there a re heterosexuals who are not getting married or not staying married, as well as roughly half of all marriages ending in divorce. With marriage in a decline, one could rationally argue that two people wanting to enter into matrimony, to make an oath, not only to themselves, but to the community, the state, and basically the whole world, should be encouraged. The institution of marriage benefits society, giving strength to families and communities as a whole. Furthermore, the state has a variety of interest in promoting marriage, it promotes stability for adults and children and helps individuals lead happier and more productive lives (Strasser, P. M., 1999). A hard to swallow fact is American history is plagued with discrimination. Rights have been denied to every type of citizen for a lot of reasons they had no control of in our history more than once. In the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s America had firm standing miscegenation laws, or laws not allowing marriages between persons of two different races. These stood until Loving v. Virginia, a civil case where the Supreme Court declared anti-miscegenation laws a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment and thus unconstitutional. I would think it is fair to say thatShow MoreRelatedGay Marriage Should Be Legal1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHoward Sociology 1301-93431 Gay Marriage Getting married is something that most people do when they find love, which it is an important event in their life. The GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender) community now get the legal right of same-sex marriage, which they have fought for throughout the years; on the other hand, some opponents of same-sex marriage have called for a constitutional change towards it. Although there were some countries that allowed gay marriage before the United StatesRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmendment, which puts a ban on gay marriage. This amendment entitles to equal rights to the gay community, ending toleration of discrimination in jobs, rights protecting gays from hate crimes,rights allowing advancement in government. However, the concept of gay marriage is still not considered a right the American people should extend to homosexuals. II. The vast majority of opponents believe marriage should be between one woman and one man, meaning marriage should be between members of the oppositeRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1574 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesequal rights. Gays and lesbians are consistently denied rights that are typically taken for granted by the average American. Specifically, gay and lesbian couples are denied the right to marry even if they are outstanding citizens. They are held at an unfair disadvantage solely because of their sexual orientation. This discrimination must stop, because gay and lesbian couples are law-abiding citizens too, who should be afforded the same rights as heterosexual couples. Marriage is about love andRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat is marriage? Recently, people argue with respect to the definition of marriage. What happened to marriage? To get married is a very important event for almost everyone. Especially for women, marriage and giv ing a birth could be the two biggest events of their lives. Many people believe that getting married to the one whom he or she loves is natural. However, what do you think if you cannot get married to him or her because it is socially unacceptable? 100 years ago different colored peopleRead MoreShould Gay Marriage Be Legal?778 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesShould Gay Marriage Be Legal? Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I now pronounce you husband and wifeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ One would normally hear this when attending a wedding. In tradition marriage has been between one male and one female who love each other. But how would one feel if they heard Ã¢â¬Å"I now pronounce you groom and groomÃ¢â¬ or how about Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦bride and bride...Ã¢â¬ ? In the last 50 years the number of same-sex couples has increased. The on-going argument between the government and the people is Ã¢â¬Å"Should gay marriage be legal?Ã¢â¬ Although some sayRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJune 26, 2015 for gay marriage to be legal in all fifty states, thirty seven out of the fifty and Washington D.C already legalized gay marriage. Many support gay marriage and many do not, with widespread values and reasons for and against it. Due to religion and rights people across the nation have differing views and opinions of it.In a five to four vote in the Supreme Court gay marriage becam e legalized in all fifty states. Shortly after that a few marriage officiators and marriage licenses peopleRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGAY MARRIAGES Some states such as Iowa legalized gay marriage through the action of judicial interpretation based on the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s constitutional stipulations while other states such as Vermont legalized gay marriage through legislation initiatives. These cases demonstrate the government is the sole body that can dictate the validity of whatever is to be regarded as a marriage, and in this case gay marriage. The power to validate marriage is still observed among the private citizens, religious institutionsRead MoreThe Gay Marriage Should Be Legal947 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDefending Gay Marriage During the last few years, homosexuality has become an important issue for debate. Moreover, homosexuals have taken their case further by claiming their right to marry. Same-sex marriage, usually known as Ã¢â¬Å"gay marriageÃ¢â¬ , is the marriage between two people from the same biological sex (Doskow1). Since 2000, eleven countries have approved the legalization of gay marriage worldwide: Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Canada, South Africa, Norway, Sweden, Portugal, Iceland, ArgentinaRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNew World Dictionary defines the word married as being husband and wife, yet there are millions of gay activists who are fighting for a new meaning. They believe marriage is more than a piece of paper and a set of rings. The hope is that marriage could be defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"public recognition of a private commitmentÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"emotional, financial, and psychological bondÃ¢â¬ between two people (Sullivan 53). Gay activists belie ve that taking away the ability to have a publicly recognized relationship or an acceptedRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshappened for United States, gay marriage became legal in all 50 states. In most states it already was but the remaining 13 became legal this year. There are many concerns regarding gay marriage, and the effects of them involve many legislative, cultural, religious and family issues. Gay marriage is controversial because a lot of people do not approve of it, they think it is immoral, unnatural, and not what the traditional concept of Ã¢â¬Å"marriageÃ¢â¬ really means. Opponents of gay marriage say it is only meant
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Imagine an Earth devoid of clean rivers with no inland marine life or readily available freshwater. This situation may arise if humanity does not volunteer to end its polluting tendencies. Initially, each individual should focus on taking steps towards decontaminating his or her nearest water body. For those living in Delaware, this is the Delaware River, which is in need of drastic reform. Ã¢â¬Å"The Delaware River . . . is the fifth most-polluted river in the country, according to a report released . . . by Environment New JerseyÃ¢â¬ (Augenstein). However, this obstacle did not arise spontaneously. A recognized problem by the early eighteenth century, Delaware River pollution remained a serious issue for the next 300 years and mostly stemmed from rapid population growth and booming industrial activities (Ã¢â¬Å"Delaware River Water QualityÃ¢â¬ ). As the years progressed, Delawareans continuously disregarded the Delaware River, and it is now immensely besmirched as a result o f accumulating neglect for the river. Because of this, Delaware waters continued to befoul past the threshold of safety. Delaware waterways are currently unsafe for commercial use due to the presence of pollutants and parasites like Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the river that can cause significant health problems, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems (Ã¢â¬Å"DelawareÃ¢â¬ ). The polluted Delaware River, sullied by companies despite the Clean Water Act, may cause a decline in DelawareÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ marine life, humanShow MoreRelatedThe State Of Delaware River Pollution1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdecontaminating his or her nearest water body. For those living in Delaware, the nearest major water body is the Delaware River, which is in dire need of reform. Ã¢â¬Å"The Delaware River, . . . is the fifth most-polluted river in the country, according to a report released . . . by Environment New JerseyÃ¢â¬ (Augenstein). However, this issue did not arise spontaneo usly. A recognized problem by the early eighteenth century, Delaware River pollution remained a serious issue for the next 300 years. This mostly originatedRead MoreThe Delaware River Basin And The State Of New York1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Delaware River flows from the Delaware River Basin in the state of New York, creating a natural boundary between Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey. The lower boundary of the river is urbanized and the upper boundary is rural with very little industry. If the Delaware River Basin were to be disturbed, many people would be affected. The Delaware River Basin is a major source of drinking water for many in the metro New York City area and houses many species that play an important role in theRead MoreAnimal Animals : Animal Waste1214 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmodern society, animals, such as chickens and cows, are genetically created for human consumption in concentrated animal feeding operations, otherwise known as CAFOs (Burkholder 2007). Anim al feeding operations significantly contribute to water pollution because of the millions of pounds of manure produced. Controlled animal feeding operations hold hundreds of animals that must relieve themselves multiple times a day, causing an excessive buildup of manure. 238,000 working farms and ranches in theRead MoreEcology of Maryland1280 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespresent day. Eventually, Marylands rock layer turned into fertile soils, mineral deposits, and composite water elements. The political boundaries of the State of Maryland enclose an ecologically assorted land. Its river systems nosh the Chesapeake Bay, the Delaware River, and the Ohio River. Throughout the state, altitudes ascend from the coast to more than 3,000 feet at Backbone Mountain in Garrett County (Krech, 1999). Granite bedrock projects from the plane of western Maryland, at the same time asRead MoreLouisiana Is A Place Of Beautiful Wildlife And Landscape1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdisappearing is that they are just being converted into open water. While other wetlands in other states are being used for many things. The destruction of these wetlands in the coast of Louisiana can be prevented by funding restoration acts and stopping pollution. If this rate of LouisianaÃ¢â¬â¢s wetlands being lost, the state will lose another fifteen percent by the year 2050. With these numbers being said, Mark stated Ã¢â¬Å"LouisianaÃ¢â¬â¢s coastline has been losing wetlands at a rate of 16.57 square miles a year duringRead MoreGlobal Climate Change Proposal1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin our atmosphere. The greenhouse effect causes an increase in the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature from atmospheric gases, including carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, disrupts the cycle of energy by trapping the outgoing energy from the Earth, which is supposed to be on its way back to space (Shah, 2012). Instead, the energy is retained on Earth; causing natural temperature to increase as well as polluting the air. Human activity has contributed to this natural effect through the excessive burning ofRead MoreThe New York City Water System2654 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesunderground or at ground level that can include water treatment and associated equipment (pumps and piping systems). There are three major watershed systems in which New York receives its water which are The Croton System, The Catskill System, The Delaware System. The reservoir systems pump approximately 1.1 billion gallons of fresh and clean water through New York State. Through aqueducts ninety-seven percent of the water comes to New York City through gravity and another three percent is pumped.Read MorePollution, Overfishing, And The Sea Of An Urban Environment1953 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPhiladelphia is a city not far yet not terribly close to the coast, a city rooted in public art relating to the history of the area. Although bordered by both the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, it is often forgotten that the everyday actions of citizens of the city impact the environment both near and as far away as the Atlantic coast. Awareness must be brought to the issue that we, the human race, are slowly but surely degrading our planet to the point that it will force major lifestyle changesRead MoreSilent Spring By Rachel Carson1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnvironmentalism is the belief in which one advocates for environmental preservation. In Rachel CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative Silent Spring, she gives her activist insight on the use of toxic chemicals for the benefit of humanity by exposing the detrimental effects these toxins bring. In comparison to Carson, I perceive myself to have developed my perception of nature through books however, my culture did not allow me to have a one on one interaction with nature. Carson fails to comprehend how traditional valuesRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The North Atlantic Region Essay1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbecome more problematic for coastal societies in recent history as a result of elevated greenhouse gas emission levels across the planet. Increases in sea level and sea surface temperature, as well as atmospheric pressure accretion, are unnatural effects directly linked to increased carbon dioxide (C O2) release into the atmosphere. Some of the sources of these increases have come from the greater use of coal and gasoline for industrial and transportation purposes. Hurricanes (tropical cyclones), most
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Organisation Provides Facility Of Online? Answer: Introducation E-Bay incorporation is an international electronic commerce organisation, facilitating online sales between consumers and businesses. The company was started in 1995 by Pierre Omidyar. The organisation provides the facility of online auction and shopping of wide variety of products. The company had revenue of US$8.97 billion in 2016 financial year. The purpose of selecting eBay is that the organisation changed the method of online trading, by taking a risky step of using innovative technology. This decision of company helps them in gaining a competitive advantage over their competitors (Simonsohn 2010). E-Bays Business Model According to Zott Amit (2010), eBay has adopted a unique strategy that helps them achieve success in electronic commerce market. E-Bay is originally an auction site that assists customers in selling their products to other customers. The unique business perspective help organisation in increasing their customer base and increasing customer satisfaction. The company provides a new form of trading which is not provided by other online retailers such as Amazon or Wal-Mart. The company features online auction where interested customers can bid their prices on a product and the largest bidder gets the product. The website structure is simple and easy to understand. The organisations unique business model helps them gain a competitive advantage because the customer base is not restricted by geographic boundaries. Companys Strategy The research of Chen, Liu Yu (2012) provides that eBays strategy is to provide high-quality services to its customers, to maintain their satisfaction and deliver products at cost-effective prices that help them gain an advantage over its competitors. Following are the key elements in their strategy: The company provides a customer-to-customer trading option in the online retail market. Customers can buy new products from different companies or auction their stuff on the website. Other customers can bid their price and the product is sold to the highest bidder. It is a unique approach adopted by the company. The worth of product enhanced due to this technique which is satisfying for both the parties. Other online retails such as Amazon, have high inventory storage cost, but eBay has competitive benefit since the company does not store their products in the warehouse. The company has more than 171 million active members in the second part of 2017 and it has a net worth of US$9.4 billion. The organisation has used various strategies to increase their market value in the online retail industry. The competitive advantage of the company includes the transparency of transaction in the C2C model where no details are hidden. The company provides high-level of security in their transactions as well. These features help the company in sustaining their growth in the future. CAGE structure The organisation has implemented innovative technology within their business processes and enhanced their business globally. The paper of Ofili (2016) discussed that, the online nature and no inventory storage requirements help the company in increasing their business worldwide. The company provide key information to interested customers and help them organise their trade. The website uses make online payments due to their trust in the organisation. It helps the company in establishing a competitive advantage. Analysis of Atlassian Atlassian was founded in 2002 and it is an Australian software company. The firm operates in the software industry and prepares group collaboration tools for companies. The clients of the company include Facebook, Visa, and BMW along with other forty thousand corporations. The revenue earned by the company in the first quarter of 2017 was AU$619.9 million. The company has increased their worth to US$5 billion in past 12 years. The purpose of choosing Atlassian for this report is that company has raised their client to forty thousand without any sales force. The companys spending on sales and marketing are below 21 percent of their revenue. Atlassian did not take any funding from outside investors for business operations. Companys Strategy According to Carlson (2017), Atlassian aim is to provide great quality software programs at a lower price, compared to its competitors. The company develops programs for organisational teams to chat and collaborate on different projects. The popular programs of Atlassian include JIRA, Confluence, and Bamboo. To increase their market share, Atlassian acquires various other software companies. Their recent acquisition was a group collaboration program called Trello. Atlassians main objective is to provide great product satisfaction to their clients. The organisation keeps their programs charges low for their customers. Asay (2014) called Atlassian strategy to be upside down because it did not spend on sales team or marketing their products, and they did not take funding from investors. Instead of focusing on satisfying their outside investors, the company focuses on their consumers software requirements, and they maintain a high rate of client satisfaction. This unique approach creates a competitive advantage because the money saved on sale and marketing are spent on product enhancement by Atlassian. The company has sustained their future growth by adopting this upside down policy. Atlassian Business Model The business model of the company emphasises on providing great quality programs at comparatively lower charges. According to Bass (2016), the absence of sales force is an example of the innovative approach. Below are the key parts of Atlassian business model: Creating a great product based on clients necessities Charges of product should be lower than competitors Concentration on enhancing the daily users for applications Ease of availability of programs at the website of the company Maintaining easy trial options and transparency in charges The business model of Atlassian shows innovation and new approach of the company. The high rate of clients satisfaction and no outside investors pressure, sustain the growth of the company. CAGE structure To enhance their market share, Atlassian required increasing business in outside countries such as Ireland, China, and Singapore. Atlassian can enhance their clients by investing in the software companies of Singapore. The organisation should evaluate their cultural, administrative, geographic and economic factors before investing in outside markets. According to Reodique (2016), Atlassian can benefit from the rapid growth of Singapores software industry. References Asay, M. (2014). Atlassians upside-down business strategy: Could it work for you?. TechRepublic. Retrieved from https://www.techrepublic.com/article/atlassians-upside-down-business-strategy-could-it-work-for-you/ Bass, D. (2016). This $5 Billion Software Company Has No Sales Staff. Bloomberg. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-18/this-5-billion-software-company-has-no-sales-staff Carlson, R. M. (2017). Atlassian: Analysis and strategic recommendation. Chen, K. P., Liu, Y. S., Yu, Y. T. (2012). The Seller's listing strategy in online auctions: evidence from eBay. Ofili, O. U. (2016). Internationalization: Choosing The Right Entry Mode: Lessons From Ebays Strategy In China.European Scientific Journal, ESJ,12(1). Reodique, A. M. (2016). Singapores analytics software market to grow 8.6 percent CAGR over the next 3 years. MIS-Asia. Retrieved from https://www.mis-asia.com/tech/applications/singapores-analytics-software-market-to-grow-86-percent-cagr-over-the-next-3-years/ Simonsohn, U. (2010). eBay's crowded evenings: Competition neglect in market entry decisions.Management science,56(7), 1060-1073. Zott, C., Amit, R. (2010). Business model design: an activity system perspective.Long range planning,43(2), 216-226.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Squirrels live on trees * They eat nuts and seeds * They are small bushy tailed animal New Words I Learned: * Gambol- leap playfully * It is well worth while to attract them near the house so that one may enjoy the sight their gambols and minister to their wants by suitable diet. Frolic- play lightheartedly * Then the window was opened and the nuts put on a table inside the room, and there little Frolic sits whilst we are at meals and forms one of the family * Whilst- while * Then the window was opened and the nuts put on a table inside the room, and there little Frolic sits whilst we are at meals and forms one of the family * Agile- mentally quick. One would not think she could catch the agile little creature. * Nectarines- smooth-skinned peach They certainly nibble the young shoots of firs and horse-chestnuts unmercifully in the spring, and one very dry summer they took very kindly to our peaches and nectarines. We will write a custom essay sample on Squirrels or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Things I learned from the topic: * The squirrels great enemy is the cat. * They chase each other round a tree-stem with wonderful agility * They express their animosity with angry grunts and a stamp of the foot like a rabbit. * I have learnt that the squirrels tail has quite a language of its own. The most interesting thing I learned about the topic: I have learnt that the squirrels tail has quite a language of its own. It can be curved over its back and so spread out that on a wet day it forms a complete shelter from rain. It will take the form of a note of interrogation or lie flat on the ground, stand out at an angle or bristle with anger, according to the mood of the possessor. I think the essay did a good job of teaching me about the topic Because I knew about squirrels!